Every scientific text builds on what has been discussed in previous research by supplementing, supporting, nuanced, combating or summarizing existing knowledge and insights. When processing passages from the work of other scientific writers, you are expected to indicate clearly and honestly from which work the insights and knowledge used come; if you don’t, you’re plagiarizing.
What do we mean by citing, paraphrasing, and summarizing, and what guidelines should you follow?
What is quote?
To quote means to literally copy a piece of text.
Attention: this is only possible under the following conditions:
- The quote should not be too long and should be relevant to your paper or thesis.
- Clearly mark the beginning and end of the quote (by placing it in quotes or – for longer quotes – by indenting them as a block).
- Copy the quote in the original language.
- Always quote according to the intent of the source. For example, pay close attention to whether the quote is not intended to be ironic and that the meaning of the quote does not change if you take it out of its original context.
- When quoting, include the author’s surname, date of issue, and the exact page(s).
- The complete reference must be found in the bibliography at the back.
What is Paraphrasing?
When describing in your own words the content of a (usually short) text passage, for example, a sentence or a paragraph, we speak of paraphrasing. When paraphrasing, you only use the last name of the author(s) followed by the date of publication.
It is followed by a parenthetical reference with the author’s surname, year, and the page number. Mentioning the page number is not mandatory but recommended. A maximum of five authors is mentioned.
Internet sources do not contain page number(s), with the exception of numbered files, such as a journal article that has been put online as a PDF file and you can easily paraphrase them using paraphrase tool.
What it is to summarizing?
A summary is an abbreviated representation of a longer section of text (for example, a number of paragraphs, pages, a chapter, or an entire book). A summary is limited to the main points and contains far fewer words than the original.
Attention: even if you paraphrase or summarize, you must do the following:
- The complete reference must be found in the bibliography at the back;
- You must correctly represent the content of the source and it must be in accordance with the intent of the original source;
- You must make sure that the content of the original source is not distorted;
- You must make sure it is clear where the paraphrasing or summary begins and ends;
- For each paraphrase or summary, you must clearly state the source from which it comes.
Goals of recording other people’s ideas while paraphrasing
As an anchoring of your own text in the context of the field. Anyone who does not explicitly link his or her text to the current state of research is soon regarded as naive. In recognition of and respect for the work of other researchers. Anyone who does not display this recognition is considered arrogant.